In Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda national food security is achieved largely by smallholder farmers in rainfed agricultural-livestock systems. Population growth rates are high, and land for agricultural expansion is no longer abundant. Traditionally, national water management has been the responsibility of different ministries—agriculture, water, environment, tourism, and energy—with adverse impacts on local strategies to improve water management for cultivation and food production. A review by the Comprehensive Assessment of water and food policy-related documents in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda found that there was no clear policy on rainwater harvesting for agricultural production to improve food security among the rural poor.