Factores nutricionales. Teoría de la trofobiosis

Las plantas no tienen un sistema interno de defensas orgánicas como lo tienen los animales. Los vegetales son organismos de nutrición autótrofa, o sea, que sintetizan su propio alimento (trofos) a partir del carbono mineral y el agua, por intermedio de luz solar.
Esta síntesis desencadena otras, hasta la síntesis de proteínas, que se denomina proteosíntesis. Los organismos heterótrofos se nutren parásita y saprófitamente de estas reservas, a través de la proteolisis, para entonces sintetizar sus proteínas.
Chaboussou (1966) elaboró la teoría de la trofobiosis, según la cual todo proceso vital se encuentra condicionado por la satisfacción de las necesidades nutricionales del organismo vivo, sea éste animal o vegetal; de este modo, las defensas orgánicas de los vegetales están en una nutrición equilibrada, impidiendo la acumulación de sustancias nutritivas (para los heterótrofos) en la savia o citoplasma. Estas sustancias nutritivas son azúcares y aminoácidos, es decir, compuestos solubles inutilizados por las plantas y que se acumulan en las vacuolas. Aplicando la teoría de la trofobiosis a los ácaros fitófagos, Chaboussou (1975) señala que todo factor susceptible de provocar en la planta un aumento de proteosíntesis y correlativamente una disminución de los elementos solubles, se traducirá automáticamente en un reforzamiento de la resistencia a los ácaros por parte de la planta, e inversamente cada vez que en las hojas la proteolisis sea superior a la proteosíntesis asistiremos al fenómeno contrario, es decir al incremento de ácaros, especialmente notable en la familia Tetranychidae.

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